A major source of difference between these groups is their approach to Jewish law.
Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin, eternal and unalterable, and that they should be strictly followed.
The most popular formulation is Maimonides’ thirteen principles of faith, developed in the 12th century.
The ordinary, familiar, everyday things and occurrences, we have constitute occasions for the experience of God.
Such things as one’s daily sustenance, the very day itself, are felt as manifestations of God’s loving-kindness, calling for the , holiness, which is nothing else than the imitation of God, is concerned with daily conduct, with being gracious and merciful, with keeping oneself from defilement by idolatry, adultery, and the shedding of blood.
A monotheistic religion originating in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Tanakh) and explored in later texts such as the Talmud, Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God developed with the Children of Israel.
This assertion was historically challenged by the Karaites, a movement that flourished in the medieval period, which retains several thousand followers today and maintains that only the Written Torah was revealed.
In Maimonides’ time, his list of tenets was criticized by Hasdai Crescas and Joseph Albo.